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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:meetingex.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由(you)(you)主体(ti)(ti)、驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)系(xi)统(tong)和(he)控制系(xi)统(tong)三个基(ji)本(ben)部(bu)分(fen)组成(cheng)。按机(ji)(ji)器人结构分(fen)类(lei)为(wei)直(zhi)(zhi)角坐标(biao)型,机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿二维直(zhi)(zhi)角坐标(biao)系(xi)移动(dong)(dong)。主体(ti)(ti)部(bu)分(fen)通(tong)常采用(yong)龙(long)门(men)式结构,由(you)(you)y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)与导轨(gui)(gui)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕、十(shi)(shi)字(zi)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)、立柱、过(guo)渡(du)连接(jie)板和(he)基(ji)座(zuo)(zuo)等部(bu)分(fen)组成(cheng),z向(xiang)(xiang)的(de)(de)(de)直(zhi)(zhi)线(xian)运动(dong)(dong)皆(jie)为(wei)交(jiao)流(liu)伺(si)服电(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)通(tong)过(guo)蜗(wo)轮减速器驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)齿(chi)轮与y向(xiang)(xiang)横(heng)梁(liang)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕上固定的(de)(de)(de)齿(chi)条作滚动(dong)(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件沿导轨(gui)(gui)快速运动(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件为(wei)质量较轻的(de)(de)(de)十(shi)(shi)字(zi)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)座(zuo)(zuo)和(he)z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕,滑(hua)(hua)(hua)枕采用(yong)由(you)(you)铝(lv)合金拉制的(de)(de)(de)型材。横(heng)梁(liang)采用(yong)方钢型材,在横(heng)梁(liang)上安装有导轨(gui)(gui)和(he)齿(chi)条,通(tong)过(guo)滚轮与导轨(gui)(gui)接(jie)触,整(zheng)个机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du)快,加速(su)度(du)(du)(du)大,加减(jian)速(su)时间(jian)(jian)短(duan)。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较重(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)时,惯量(liang)大,因此(ci),伺服(fu)(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电机(ji)要有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元件(jian)(jian)也(ye)要有(you)足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)(du)及(ji)强度(du)(du)(du)。只(zhi)有(you)这样,才(cai)能(neng)使伺服(fu)(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)满(man)足桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高响应、高刚度(du)(du)(du)及(ji)高精度(du)(du)(du)要求。在(zai)选择(ze)合(he)适伺服(fu)(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)据(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)和(he)运(yun)(yun)行(xing)节拍,计算(suan)出伺服(fu)(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移(yi)和(he)轨迹(ji),对(dui)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行(xing)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态调整。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)根(gen)据(ju)接收(shou)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)位移(yi)、速(su)度(du)(du)(du)指令,经变化、放大并(bing)调整处(chu)理后,传递给运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单元,通过(guo)光纤传感(gan)器(qi)对(dui)运(yun)(yun)行(xing)状(zhuang)态进行(xing)实时检测,在(zai)高速(su)搬运(yun)(yun)过(guo)程(cheng)中,运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)在(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)时间(jian)(jian)内到(dao)达给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)速(su)度(du)(du)(du),并(bing)能(neng)在(zai)高速(su)行(xing)程(cheng)中瞬间(jian)(jian)准停(ting),通过(guo)高分辩(bian)率绝对(dui)式编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)插(cha)补运(yun)(yun)算(suan),控制机(ji)械(xie)误(wu)差(cha)和(he)测量(liang)误(wu)差(cha)对(dui)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)不同,质量(liang)也(ye)不同,因此(ci),桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)有(you)多种规格和(he)系列。在(zai)选择(ze)时,根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)工件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量(liang),加工的(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍来选取(qu)。但(dan)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方式,则根(gen)据(ju)被输(shu)(shu)送(song)工件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)形状(zhuang)、结(jie)构及(ji)机(ji)床夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方式来设计(见图2)。

机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)能够借助可(ke)编程序来处(chu)理和执行(xing)任务。机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)主要由手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装置、运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)组成(cheng)。通过对工件(jian)(jian)(jian)外形或工件(jian)(jian)(jian)上(shang)定(ding)位支撑点定(ding)位夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)。例如,在汽车发动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)加(jia)工柔性自动(dong)(dong)(dong)线物流输送中(zhong),桁架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)会根据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲(qu)轴等工件(jian)(jian)(jian)的外形特(te)点,选取不(bu)(bu)(bu)同的定(ding)位和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)方(fang)(fang)式。柔性机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)采用气缸(gang)和电机(ji)进(jin)行(xing)定(ding)位和夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)的切换(huan)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong),一套机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)可(ke)完成(cheng)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同品种的工件(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运(yun)工作(zuo)。夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)可(ke)根据产品质量和外形的大(da)小采用系列化(hua)设计,机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)上(shang)的夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)安装方(fang)(fang)式相同,针对不(bu)(bu)(bu)同系列的工件(jian)(jian)(jian),只需切换(huan)相应(ying)的夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)即(ji)可(ke),满足快速切换(huan)的需要。这样,当加(jia)工不(bu)(bu)(bu)同品种的工件(jian)(jian)(jian),只须(xu)变换(huan)夹(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)(kuai)就可(ke)实现,提高了桁架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的柔性化(hua)。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械(xie)手输(shu)送装置的发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan),经历了(le)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就(jiu)目(mu)前而言, 在(zai)(zai)国内二者(zhe)均有(you)之(zhi)。刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)为棘(ji)轮(lun)棘(ji)爪、摆(bai)杆、抬起(qi)步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形(xing)式。随(sui)着加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan),由其组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)替代组(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它(ta)以(yi)适应(ying)小批(pi)量多品(pin)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点,得到(dao)市场(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广泛认可(ke),并称其为柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)种以(yi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然(ran)为刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓是(shi)(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)(you)有(you)了(le)飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形(xing)式以(yi)刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou))并存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)(tong)全部(bu)由桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系统(tong)(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)(shi)高速(su)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心配以(yi)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又(you)(you)称之(zhi)为敏捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)(shi)敏捷制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)系统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距可(ke)根(gen)据机(ji)(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)随(sui)意(yi)改(gai)(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)位(wei)置(zhi)不(bu)再象刚(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那(nei)样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距或(huo)步(bu)距倍数的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求进行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速(su)度也(ye)可(ke)根(gen)据生(sheng)产(chan)节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而改(gai)(gai)变(bian)。而真正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要一(yi)面(mian)是(shi)(shi)(shi),当被(bei)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品(pin)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适应(ying)而全部(bu)更(geng)换,只要改(gai)(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)局(ju)部(bu)结构即(ji)可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面(mian)是(shi)(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)床柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智能化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)(tong)一(yi)。因此(ci),桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)才(cai)在(zai)(zai)当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)越来越多地被(bei)采(cai)用(yong),使整个生(sheng)产(chan)过(guo)程通(tong)过(guo)信(xin)(xin)息流系统(tong)(tong)进行(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。在(zai)(zai)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程中,所需(xu)各种信(xin)(xin)息收集、处理、反馈(kui),并通(tong)过(guo)电子计(ji)(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压(ya)、气压(ya)装(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)设备(bei)实(shi)行(xing)分(fen)级(ji)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)(xin)息流系统(tong)(tong)分(fen)为由中央管(guan)理计(ji)(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物(wu)流控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单(dan)元控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)计(ji)(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床以(yi)及(ji)信(xin)(xin)息传(chuan)送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。目(mu)前,汽车制(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)业(ye)中加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖(gai)及(ji)曲轴等大批(pi)量关键零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)了(le)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内外(wai)的差距

当下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展很快,技术水平有(you)了很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高(gao),与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)变得(de)(de)越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)小(xiao),甚至有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有(you)什(shen)么差(cha)距(ju)。特(te)别(bie)(bie)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重(zhong)大(da)(da)科技专项的(de)(de)(de)开展,为我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上档次(ci)上水平提高(gao)了加(jia)(jia)速度,成(cheng)绩显(xian)而(er)(er)易见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这几(ji)年(nian)发展的(de)(de)(de)特(te)别(bie)(bie)快,但柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平和档次(ci),较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)还很明显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)较(jiao)为普遍(bian),而(er)(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为数不(bu)多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车生产(chan)市场所(suo)采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大(da)(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口。如无(wu)锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)由(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总(zong)承包,由(you)BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)检(jian)具(ju)、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)。输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用空中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手和机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)。仅以汽车制造业而(er)(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),采(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈(qu)指可数。大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团和沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团等生产(chan)出了该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),并(bing)在(zai)生产(chan)实(shi)际中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)得(de)(de)到了应(ying)用。图4是大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团生产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)两种缸体(ti),分别(bie)(bie)为四缸和六缸,其输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)采(cai)用空中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手和自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)两端为机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形(xing)式。桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手两个(ge)(ge),一个(ge)(ge)上料(liao),一个(ge)(ge)下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功,标志着我国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由(you)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)开始(shi)向(xiang)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际水准迈进。

上述提及的(de)(de)(de)只(zhi)是数量上的(de)(de)(de)比较,其实(shi)真正(zheng)的(de)(de)(de)原因还(hai)是国产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水平与国外(wai)有着一定的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)(ju)。柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)工自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou),也是从(cong)国外(wai)进口的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou)。那(nei)时,国内还(hai)没有专门(men)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)厂(chang)家。如今,国内巨一等一些桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)厂(chang)家的(de)(de)(de)涌出,为(wei)国产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)工自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)带来(lai)了希(xi)望,进而(er)缩小(xiao)了与国外(wai)在(zai)生产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou)方(fang)面的(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)(ju),国产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)(heng)架机械(xie)手(shou)在(zai)柔(rou)(rou)性加(jia)工自(zi)动(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)应(ying)用(yong)也越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多,从(cong)而(er)打破(po)国产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)市场被外(wai)国人的(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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